Usually natural look is associated with harmony, things that come from nature. The nature creator"s work is hard to be achieved, and for now we as humans, particularly dentists, try to imitate it, when damage is being done. Harmony and harmonic proportions, in contrast to beauty (abstract concept), can be measured, then recreated to almost full detail.
Let"s take for example human face – there is an equality between the three key parts (upper – from the start of the hairline till the base of the nose and eyebrows.; middle – to the top of the nose ; lower – to the top of the chin). These part must always be taken into consideration by the dentists, because changes can mean specific problems. There is a proportion and width of both nostrils; and the distance between the two upper canine teeth (dog teeth).
The line, that the inner edge of the lower lip forms, is important and almost parallel to the line, which is formed by the edges of upper 6 front teeth.
in profile upper lip is in front of the lower by 5-10 mm – positive mouth ladder.
Very important is the comparing of both facial sides in full face position – the two parts must match, taking into account individual characteristics(we know that separated in the center, both facial part do not fit symetrically in every person).
Really interesting is the so called “Golden ratio” which has been studied by the ancient greeks over 2000 years ago. Expressed in architecture in that time and later for example in – gothic cathedrals, work of renaissance painters like Leonardo da Vinci and others. Its effect is called also “Fibonacci number” (pr Fi) which is approximately 1,618. If we look for example at human bellybutton, it devides the body into two even parts. Nowadays this number can be found in almost every aspect of nature It raises many questions and answers ( for example: in popular researches about rabbit populations, cows, bees, shape of sea shells, branches of plant"s leaves, colors and leafs, cones, pineapple and others).Face and teeth do not make exception. Such ratio there is between lines of upper central and side front-teeth; between the line of both central front-teeth and their height; between size of smile, starting from the center, and width of first 3 upper teeth (starting from the center as well) etc. All this knowledge can be applied for achieving a satisfactory final treatment result.
The basic characteristics of teeth are their shape, which are common for every type of tooth, and very individualistic as well. So natural look (or aesthetics) can be achieved the dentists by combination of general rules and individual characteristics of every single patient. Treatment of severely damaged and numerous teeth requires vital old pictures of the patient, in his relaxed and natural state, when changes did not occur yet. Important starting point is the following relation: shape of the central front-teeth is the same as the shape of the face but inverted. Also shape of the chin is associated with the shape of teeth cervix. Common mistake is repairing front-teeth by non-vivid cervixes, which not only damages gums, but also make the image of the smile look like “orbit gum wise”. These gaps are called embrasures and are common between every teeth, faced frontally, and are fill by gum papilla. They help food particles to slide on to teeth and not go towards the gums. These triangle shaped gaps are made by the tooth equator(most bulging part) by which they connect.
Another important factor is positioning of the teeth. All teeth must be positioned on one basic line(except for upper side front-teeth, which are 1-1,5 mm above all teeth – aesthetic factor of human smile). Upper teeth cover lower ones, as in front they cover about 1/3, 1/2 of them. In position of closed mouth the tops of lower teeth rests in gaps of upper teeth and vice versa.
Distinctive characteristic of human teeth is their color. Most people associated them with the color white, but they are not white not matte. Dentine under enamel is determining the color. That is why canine teeth are more “yellow”, i.e. more dentine, and front-teeth are thinner (bright) and enamel is in excess in front-teeth. The color of the teeth depends on the reflection and trespassing of light, opalescence, transparency and translucency, also intensive coloring, defects caused by changes in shape. Opalescence is the enamel"s ability to let through red-orange shades and reflect blue-violet ones. Same result we witness at the sky – at noon it is blue, in the morning – orange, because of various level of water molecules in the atmosphere and the angle at which sun rays are deflected. Translucency is the image of full opacity like in ivory, and full transparency like glass.
Each color has 3 components – contrast, saturation (intensity), and pigment . Human teeth does not have much pigment, but it must be noted - for example female dental ceramics must be tested with their lipstick which leave greenish shade on teeth; at the lab it must be worked with pink-red pigment, in order to neutralise these unwanted result.
Saturation is counter proportional of contrast i.e. more dentine – less contrast and more intensity .
Additional parameter is fluorescence – the act of absorbing waves and emitting ones. As dentine is 3 times more fluorescent than enamel, it has inner luminescence reaction.
We must admit that most difficult to work with are patients that has lost their sense of aesthetics – with former poor quality dental treatment. These patients must be educated by different diagnostic visual materials.
Human faces are like polished diamonds – in order for it to shine and deflect lights in best way possible, every surface must be treated in particular manner, and to be in harmony with the whole structure. Such results can be achieved only by dentist specialist who is well grounded in special features and amazing results of modern aesthetic dental medicine.