Tooth decay is one of the most common diseases of 20 and 21 century – almost 100% epidemic same as cardio-vascular diseases, diabetes and others. It is civilization disease, meaning it is root causes ar in our ways of life. They are four: carbohydrates (sugar, dough foods), micro organism, time (carbohydrates in the mouth for long periods of time) and dental surface. The only food causing tooth decay is carbohydrate filled – such as crystal sugar. Complex carbs (bread) also cause tooth decay, but more slowyl – everyone remembers examples in schools of bread crusts, which gets sweeter in mouth – saliva enzymes dissolve bread to molecular sugar. If we put two egg shells, one in cup of water and the other one in vinegar, the next day the second cup will no longer have bread. Same is happening with our teeth after interaction with acids, which is a result of the microbes eating carbs in our mouth. That is why every carbonated drinks are highly cancerogenic. If they have sugar, are more unhealthy. Research of ADA shows taht caries in little children increases drastically if regular consumption of coke and other carbonated drinks is present.
Another characteristic of tooth decay is that it is very difficult to occur because of natural sugars, but is easily present if chocolade, waffles, sweets, cakes, bread are eaten be patients. Consuming these foods, micro organisms in mouth increase in number and stick to teeth under the form of calculus. They do not differ in color with teeth, which helps corrosion process. The factor here is time itself. that is how the first white spot on enamel is occurring – its microstructure is damaged. Afterwards this spot becomes brown – build ups from food particles. And finally, caries is formed – there is already cavity. This process is quick mostly in children patients and chronic – in adults. In children primarily on digestive surface and in adults – in between teeth gaps. This makes caries invisible for patients even till pulpit is formed, if there is no already pain from sweets, drinks. Usually toothaches disappeared right after stopping main source of cause. Only experienced dentists can detect this process. That is why regular prophylactic check ups decrease possibilities of worsening these processes. The main role of dentists in these cases is to monitor the status of hygiene and if noticed alterations to inform patients about healthy nutrition and hygiene.
Depending on the level of this process there are different types of tooth decays: surface caries – on emanel; middle one – dentine one; deep – close to pulpit one.
Tooth decay/caries is cleaned and defect is being treated by materials of obturation
If necessary treatment is not performed in time caries can progress towards nerves and cause first of many complications – pilpit . This makes pain even stronger and forms spontaneously – usually in the night; or nerve damage; or provoked but having durability after pain has stopped. If little hole which connects the nerve is small and process of decay is in latter stages, there is still chance for preserving the nerve – reversible pulpit– by placing permanent calcium plate, which regenerates dentine and encloses the pulp injury. Such treatment is called direct pulp covering. As in irreversible pulpits the whole nerve is damaged, pain is even stronger and it is required to be extracted, canals to be cleaned and filled.
If the process is in stage where infection is spread from pulp to the tooth bone, injuries are even more bad, even though in same case pain goes away. This pain free state is deceptive and patients can carry the most dangerous teeth diseases without even acknowledging it – granuloma. This is often discovered be x-ray scan and by percussion. Such infected teeth are often extremely damaged or only root are in place. There is a possibility where the tooth can be healthy by obturation treatment .